10 August 2012

Is Space-Based Solar Power realistic?

From: http://americansecurityproject.org/blog/2012/is-space-based-solar-power-realistic/
Is Space-Based Solar Power realistic?
posted by Nicholas Cunningham on August 9, 2012 at 10:44 am
The solar industry is making great strides in bringing down costs. As manufacturing capacity has ramped up in the past few years, scale has produced efficiency gains, bringing down prices for consumers.
However, there is one critical problem with solar – the sun is not always shining. This means that the capacity factor – the amount of time that the solar panel is producing energy relative to the total theoretical amount according to its nameplate capacity – only reaches about 20%. While energy storage could smooth out fluctuations, the variability remains a problem.
An interesting article in Strategic Studies Quarterly by Peter Garretson, Lt.Col., USAF, explores one possible route around the pesky problem of the sun not shining all the time – space-based solar power (SBSP).  Under this approach, huge arrays of solar panels would be put into space, and “beam” the energy down to earth. The panels would be bombarded by solar energy without interruption (there is no nighttime in space), and the solar radiation would be 36% stronger to boot. That energy could then provide solar energy 24 hours a day on Earth.
The solar “satellites” could also serve markets that span vast distances. For instance, Garretson says, “a single satellite south of Baja California could service markets across most of North and South America; a satellite over the Indian Ocean could service markets as far apart as Africa and Indonesia, and from Diego Garcia to as far north as Russia.” This is SBSP’s ‘killer app’: it can provide on-demand energy to anywhere in the world. There are obvious military applications for this – imagine forward-deployed bases that did not require resupply routes because they were powered by energy beamed down from space.
Despite the promise, at first blush SBSP would appear to be an unimaginable engineering feat. Indeed it sounds like science-fiction. A “multi-gigawatt” solar system would need to be several kilometers in surface area, requiring hundreds of space launches to get the material into space. To put that into context, the U.S. only launched only 18 rockets into space last year.
Garretson acknowledges the criticism, pointing to the fact that critics say solar has yet to become competitive on Earth, so how could installing thousands of solar panels in space come remotely close to being cost-effective?
Garretson asserts that SBSP could also meet several strategic objectives already laid out by the United States. For example, building SBSP would necessarily mean the U.S. would have to make significant leaps in space-related technologies. Also, building a solar industry in space would also provide the U.S. with the opportunity to strengthen stability in space, provide commercial opportunities, and train a generation of scientists and engineers.
Ultimately, whether or not we pursue space-based solar power comes down to the criticism that Garretson believes is most convincing. That is the question of opportunity costs. Using scarce resources on SBSP means that less is available for other important areas, like education, national defense, or healthcare. More directly, SBSP will be competing with other energy technologies, and since SBSP’s time horizon is decades away, it will be difficult to justify large-scale investments.
ASP has explored SBSP in the past. Last November, ASP hosted John Mankins, President of Artemis Innovation Management Solutions LLC, who gave a presentation on the importance of SBSP. As private companies begin lining up to take advantage of business opportunities in space exploration, SBSP could be more realistic than many believe. As ASP Senior Fellow Andrew Holland noted in a blog post last November, it is especially important for the future of SBSP that private companies get involved because cash-strapped governments will probably not foot the bill. If there is money to be made, SBSP may be best left to the private sector.
To read more about space-based solar power, check out ASP’s work on it by clicking here
----
From: http://americansecurityproject.org/issues/climate-energy-and-security/energy/future-investment/space-based-solar-power/

Space Based Solar

It is estimated that a solar power station in orbit could harness five times the solar energy captured by stations on the ground

Space Based Solar Power (SBSP) uses solar panels in space (specifically in an equatorial Geosynchronous Earth Orbit) to beaming energy to earth using harmless microwaves.
The concept was first proposed by US space expert Peter Glaser in 1968. Since then, major US reports have been published in 1997 and 2007 that show the viability of SBSP. The National Space Society has a library of the reports that have been done on this issue.
It is estimated that a solar power station in orbit could harness five times the solar energy captured by stations on the ground because of atmospheric interference and the fact that satellites in GEO do not pass into night. A satellite in Geosynchronous orbit receives 5-15 times as much solar energy per year as any place on earth.
SBSP relies on three key technologies: solar photovoltaic cells to create electricity from sunlight, microwaves to beam the energy to earth, and rocket technology.
These technologies exist today: solar cells are becoming common, the technology to beam energy to earth is essentially the same as the radars in the nose of a fighter plane, and we have been launching satellites for over 50 years.

Read about the ASP-Hosted Event on SBSP in November, 2011

There are costs, and they are currently significant. The cost of launching satellites is too high to be competitive. The reason for that cost disparity is that America’s launch systems (rockets) are used so seldom that we are unable to achieve the economies of scale that would inevitably result from a greater demand for launch vehicles.
This system uses technology that already exists. PG&E, the California-based utility, has entered into a deal to purchase electricity from a startup – Solaren – that will harvest energy from space.
JapanChina, India, and Russia are taking preparing space-based solar programs. India – who has begun a significant investment into a ‘solar mission’ – has expressed interest in partnering with the United States on a SBSP program.
SBSP could be a future source of baseload power, but for now its major advantage is that it can provide energy on demand anywhere in the world. Remote power should be an obvious benefit to a military looking to power a base in a remote location.
Other potential customers would be remote energy exploration – like shale or Arctic exploration – that is far from any electric grid.
A power plant in orbit would be an important way to change our paradigm in space from the choice that NASA faces of either scientific research or human exploration.
SBSP needs start-up capital, but ultimately, this may be something that is better handled by the private sector than NASA. There is money to be made, and the company that proves it will have a significant advantage.

57 comments:

Renewable Energy Kent said...

Great post full of good insight. Free electricity will not be around forever, so now is the time to enquire and act. This company really helped us.

green energy guide said...

It can be possible, but how the solar energy can be transmitted back to earth when the it was harnessed in outer-space by space based satellites or ships.

Milliscent Morgan said...

Try to read this blog very interesting but aside from this I like also the blog of solar power installers Markham. Thanks and have a good day.

Jackie Champion said...

Hello! Thank you for sharing your thoughts about solar contractors in your area. I am glad to stop by your site and know more about solar contractors. Keep it up! This is a good read. I will be looking forward to visit your page again and for your other posts as well.
Currently the best achieved sunlight conversion rate (solar panel efficiency) is around 17.4% in new commercial products typically lower than the efficiencies of their cells in isolation. The energy density of a solar panel is the efficiency described in terms of peak power output per unit of surface area, commonly expressed in units of watts per square foot (W/ft2). The most efficient mass-produced solar panels have energy density values of up to 16.22 W/ft2 (175 W/m2).
We offer Plumbing Integrations for Geothermal Enegy Solutions.

solar contractors massachusetts

santhosh said...

Solar Power Generation in India Solar Power plant

Anonymous said...

three of the Act any central government [url=http://www.burchjp.com]トリーバーチ アウトレット[/url]the audience with the purpose of weekend is [url=http://www.burchjp.com]TORY BURCH[/url]under a year of age they need to be placed [url=http://www.burchjp.com]TORY BURCH[/url]replace it for no cost they will have you [url=http://www.burchjp.com]http://www.burchjp.com[/url] BackdoorProrath Delete or quarantine [url=http://www.burchjp.com]http://www.burchjp.com[/url] had nearly collaboration with other

James said...

RLCPPL Solar Thermal Water Heating Systems

James said...

RLCPPL Solar Thermal Water Heating Systems

Anonymous said...

[url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/][img]http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/images/miumiu/miumiu0619.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/] MBTシューズ販売店 [/url], [url=http://www.paulsmithjpmall.com/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB%E3%82%B9%E3%83%9F%E3%82%B9-%E3%83%8F%E3%83%B3%E3%83%89%E3%82%B7%E3%83%A7%E3%83%AB%E3%83%80%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%83%E3%82%B0-c-9.html] ポールスミス ショルダーバッグ [/url], [url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/] mbt スタジオ [/url]

[url=http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/][img]http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/images/bag/M3122003-C.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-iphone%E3%82%B1%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B9-c-155.html] トリーバーチ iPhoneケース [/url], [url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/] http://www.discountmbtsja.com/ [/url], [url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/mbt%E3%83%96%E3%83%BC%E3%83%84-c-2.html] mbt ブーツ [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/][img]http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/images/miumiu/MI380.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E8%B2%A1%E5%B8%83-c-63.html] ミュウミュウ 長財布 [/url], [url=http://www.jaoakley2013.com/] http://www.jaoakley2013.com/ [/url], [url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/] mbt [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiuja2013.com]www.miumiuja2013.com[/url]
http://www.jctowingandtransport.com/content/timberland-boots-2013-p-609
http://eyeuser.com/blogs/viewstory/924188
http://www.towasal.com/index.php?do=/blog/62565/super-uggs-j-2799/

Anonymous said...

[url=http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/][img]http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/images/bag/M3121089-IM.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/%E3%83%9E%E3%83%BC%E3%82%AF%E3%83%90%E3%82%A4%E3%83%9E%E3%83%BC%E3%82%AF-%E3%83%88%E3%83%BC%E3%83%88-c-42.html] マークバイマークジェイコブス マザーズバッグ [/url], [url=http://www.paulsmithjpmall.com/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB%E3%82%B9%E3%83%9F%E3%82%B9-%E3%83%90%E3%83%83%E3%82%B0-c-6.html] paul smith バッグ [/url], [url=http://www.paulsmithjpmall.com/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB%E3%82%B9%E3%83%9F%E3%82%B9-%E3%82%B9%E3%83%BC%E3%83%84%E3%82%B1%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B9-c-4.html] ポールスミス スーツケース [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/][img]http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/images/miumiu/miu201210b05.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/%E3%83%9E%E3%83%BC%E3%82%AF%E3%83%90%E3%82%A4%E3%83%9E%E3%83%BC%E3%82%AF-%E3%83%90%E3%83%83%E3%82%B0-c-37.html] マークジェイコブス バッグ [/url], [url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-%E3%83%96%E3%83%BC%E3%83%84-c-168.html] トリーバーチ ブーツ [/url], [url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-%E8%B2%A1%E5%B8%83-c-152.html] トリーバーチ 財布 [/url]

[url=http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/][img]http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/images/wj/MJS001-1.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.paulsmithjpmall.com/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB%E3%82%B9%E3%83%9F%E3%82%B9-iphone%E3%82%B1%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B9-c-18.html] ポールスミス iPhoneケース [/url], [url=http://www.paulsmithjpmall.com/] ポールスミス [/url], [url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E8%B2%A1%E5%B8%83-c-63.html] miumiu財布新作 [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiuja2013.com]miumiu 財布[/url]
http://archive.remdublin.com/blog/mandylala74/2013/02/21/salvatore-ferragamo
http://demo.datastatic.com/jcow/index.php?p=blogs/viewstory/338
http://blog.ap.teacup.com/mygoodwork62/8.html

Anonymous said...

[url=http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/][img]http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/images/bag/MJB180.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%80%90%E6%BF%80%E5%AE%89%E3%80%91%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-classic-reva-ballet-flat-%E2%98%85-%E3%83%AC%E3%83%B4%E3%82%A1-%E3%83%90%E3%83%AC%E3%82%A8%E3%83%95%E3%83%A9%E3%83%83%E3%83%88-%E3%83%96%E3%83%A9%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF-p-690.html] トリーバーチ Reva [/url], [url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E8%B2%A1%E5%B8%83-c-63.html] miumiu財布新作 [/url], [url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/] miumiu バッグ [/url]

[url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/][img]http://www.discountmbtsja.com/images/sports/MT132.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.jaoakley2013.com/] オークリージャパン [/url], [url=http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/] marc by marc jacobs [/url], [url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-%E3%83%95%E3%83%A9%E3%83%83%E3%83%84-c-157.html] トリーバーチ バレエシューズ [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/][img]http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/images/miumiu/miumiu2199.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.paulsmithjpmall.com/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB%E3%82%B9%E3%83%9F%E3%82%B9-%E3%83%8D%E3%82%AF%E3%82%BF%E3%82%A4-c-20.html] ポールスミス ネクタイ [/url], [url=http://www.paulsmithjpmall.com/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB%E3%82%B9%E3%83%9F%E3%82%B9-%E3%83%91%E3%82%B9%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%88%E3%82%B1%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B9-c-19.html] ポールスミス パスポートケース [/url], [url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/] MBT 通販 [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiuja2013.com]www.miumiuja2013.com[/url]
http://173-203-100-146.static.cloud-ips.com/node/126989
http://expotle.com/HarvesTimeFoods/miumiu-wallets-2013-659
http://blog.livedoor.jp/mygoodwork64-1mygoodwork64/archives/23700491.html

Anonymous said...

[url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/][img]http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/images/miumiu/MI350.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/mbt%E3%82%A2%E3%82%B9%E3%83%AC%E3%83%86%E3%82%A3%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF-mbt-fora%E3%83%95%E3%82%A9%E3%83%A9-c-1_9.html] mbt fora [/url], [url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E3%81%AE%E9%9D%B4-c-75.html] ミュウミュウ 靴 [/url], [url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6-%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-c-64.html] miumiu ポーチ [/url]

[url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/][img]http://www.discountmbtsja.com/images/boots/MT241.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-iphone%E3%82%B1%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B9-c-155.html] トリーバーチ iPhoneケース [/url], [url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-%E3%83%88%E3%83%BC%E3%83%88-c-156.html] トリーバーチ ナイロントートバッグ [/url], [url=http://www.jaoakley2013.com/] http://www.jaoakley2013.com/ [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/][img]http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/images/miumiu/miumiu0464.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-%E3%83%95%E3%83%A9%E3%83%83%E3%83%84-c-157.html] トリーバーチ ラバーシューズ [/url], [url=http://www.paulsmithjpmall.com/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB%E3%82%B9%E3%83%9F%E3%82%B9-%E3%83%90%E3%83%83%E3%82%B0-c-6.html] ポールスミス バッグ [/url], [url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6-%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-c-64.html] miu miu バッグ [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiuja2013.com]miumiu 財布[/url]
http://www.towasal.com/index.php?do=/blog/62072/super-moncler-w-2334/
http://racerslog.com/blog/show/blogid/1296/id/152
http://www.sk.websteel.com.ua/node/79989

Anonymous said...

[url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/][img]http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/images/miumiu/miumiu0623.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.jaoakley2013.com/] オークリーサングラス [/url], [url=http://www.paulsmithjpmall.com/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB%E3%82%B9%E3%83%9F%E3%82%B9-%E4%B8%89%E3%81%A4%E6%8A%98%E8%B2%A1%E5%B8%83-c-14.html] paul smith 財布 [/url], [url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/mbt%E3%82%B5%E3%83%B3%E3%83%80%E3%83%AB-c-6.html] mbt サンダル [/url]

[url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/][img]http://www.discountmbtsja.com/images/work/MT94.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.jaoakley2013.com/] http://www.jaoakley2013.com/ [/url], [url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/] http://www.discountmbtsja.com/ [/url], [url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/] http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/ [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/][img]http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/images/miumiu/miumiu0192.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/%E3%83%9E%E3%83%BC%E3%82%AF%E3%83%90%E3%82%A4%E3%83%9E%E3%83%BC%E3%82%AF-iphone-%E3%82%B1%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B9-c-50.html] marc jacobs iphone 4 case [/url], [url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E3%83%9F%E3%83%A5%E3%82%A6%E8%B2%A1%E5%B8%83-c-63.html] miumiu財布新作 [/url], [url=http://www.paulsmithjpmall.com/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB%E3%82%B9%E3%83%9F%E3%82%B9-%E3%83%8F%E3%83%B3%E3%83%89%E3%82%B7%E3%83%A7%E3%83%AB%E3%83%80%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%83%E3%82%B0-c-9.html] ポールスミス ショルダーバッグ [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiuja2013.com]www.miumiuja2013.com[/url]
http://www.auto-porada.pl/node/12165
http://www.onsecapte.com/index.php?do=/blog/21040/super-tory-burch-p-6027/
http://www.dailystrength.org/people/2419463/journal/5638148

Anonymous said...

[url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/][img]http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/images/miumiu/miumiu5765.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/] MBTシューズ販売店 [/url], [url=http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/%E3%83%9E%E3%83%BC%E3%82%AF%E3%83%90%E3%82%A4%E3%83%9E%E3%83%BC%E3%82%AF-%E3%83%88%E3%83%BC%E3%83%88-c-42.html] マークバイマークジェイコブス マザーズバッグ [/url], [url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-%E3%83%88%E3%83%BC%E3%83%88-c-156.html] トリーバーチ トート [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/][img]http://www.miumiubagclubjan.com/images/miumiu/miumiu0543.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-%E3%82%B3%E3%82%B9%E3%83%A1%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-c-160.html] トリーバーチ コスメポーチ [/url], [url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-%E8%B2%A1%E5%B8%83-c-152.html] トリーバーチ 財布 [/url], [url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/mbt%E3%83%96%E3%83%BC%E3%83%84-c-2.html] mbt ブーツ [/url]

[url=http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/][img]http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/images/bag/MSS3109.jpg[/img][/url]

[url=http://www.discountmbtsja.com/] MBT 通販 [/url], [url=http://www.cheapmarcjacobsbagsjpn.com/%E3%83%9E%E3%83%BC%E3%82%AF%E3%83%90%E3%82%A4%E3%83%9E%E3%83%BC%E3%82%AF-%E3%83%88%E3%83%BC%E3%83%88-c-42.html] マークバイマークジェイコブストート [/url], [url=http://www.newtoryburchjansale.com/%E3%83%88%E3%83%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%BC%E3%83%81-%E3%83%90%E3%83%83%E3%82%B0-c-153.html] トリーバーチ バッグ激安 [/url]

[url=http://www.miumiuja2013.com]www.miumiuja2013.com[/url]
http://staging.equities.com/blog/timberland-boots-2013-z-598
http://yourhogwartsexperience.com/TheOwlPost/blogs/viewstory/318732
http://www.jewishreview.org/node/42095

Srikanto Bormon said...

Many of the models of calculators are an auto turn off; one who is working has to keep the calculator non-operating for a few seconds to turn it off, and some can be switched off by closing their lid. Some of the calculators are provided with the power off button. The displays of Calculators are liquid crystal displays. Some of the modern calculators are provided with memory cards and make the calculator able to store data. The storage capacity can be increased by putting the memory cards with large storage space. Initially many of the schools allowed their students to use calculators for solving their mathematical problems but many of the parents and teachers opposed this idea of allowing calculator in schools because they thought that the students will then totally rely on calculators. There was an agreement made that the students will be allowed to use the calculators only after when they attain proficiency in solving the sums themselves. After a brief research it was proved that calculator restrict the mathematical thinking power of the children’s and lack mathematical problem solving skills.
hydro electric
hydro electric power
what is hydro electric
inventhistory
power generator
wind power generator
solar and power
electric transportation

Anonymous said...

Hi there i am kavin, its my first time to commenting anywhere, when i read this
paragraph i thought i could also create comment
due to this brilliant post.

Feel free to surf to my web site; satellite cardsharing kings

Anonymous said...

I have to thank you for the efforts you have put in writing
this site. I am hoping to check out the same
high-grade blog posts from you in the future as well.
In truth, your creative writing abilities
has encouraged me to get my own, personal website now ;)

Feel free to surf to my webpage :: buy solar panels singapore

Anonymous said...

I've been browsing on-line more than 3 hours as of late, yet I never found any attention-grabbing article like yours. It is lovely worth sufficient for me. Personally, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will be much more helpful than ever before.

Check out my webpage :: オークリー アウトレット

Anonymous said...

We absolutely love your blog and find a lot of your post's to be just what I'm looking for.
Would you offer guest writers to write content to suit your needs?
I wouldn't mind producing a post or elaborating on most of the subjects you write about here. Again, awesome blog!

Feel free to surf to my page: rayban1stoutlet.com

Anonymous said...

Hi! Someone in my Myspace group shared this site with us so I came to check it out.
I'm definitely enjoying the information. I'm book-marking and will be tweeting this to
my followers! Great blog and terrific design and style.


my site - laser stretch mark removal

Anonymous said...

Wow that was strange. I just wrote an really
long comment but after I clicked submit my comment didn't show up. Grrrr... well I'm
not writing all that over again. Regardless, just wanted to say excellent blog!



Feel free to surf to my web site www.palmer.esu7.org

Anonymous said...

Hello, yup this article is truly pleasant and I have learned lot of things from it about blogging.
thanks.

my webpage - want to buy solar panels wholesale

Anonymous said...

Hey there! This post couldn't be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my previous room mate! He always kept chatting about this. I will forward this article to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Many thanks for sharing!

my page: www.miumiuoutletshopx.com

Anonymous said...

Hey there! This post couldn't be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my previous room mate! He always kept chatting about this. I will forward this article to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Many thanks for sharing!

Here is my blog; www.miumiuoutletshopx.com

Anonymous said...

I'm truly enjoying the design and layout of your blog. It's
a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more pleasant for
me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire
out a developer to create your theme? Outstanding work!


Here is my web page :: Skip Navigation

Anonymous said...

It's amazing in favor of me to have a web site, which is beneficial in support of my know-how. thanks admin

Also visit my weblog: oakley サングラス

Anonymous said...

Hello there! This is my first comment here so I just
wanted to give a quick shout out and tell you I really enjoy
reading through your posts. Can you recommend any
other blogs/websites/forums that cover the same topics?
Thank you!

Feel free to surf to my weblog: クロエバッグ

Anonymous said...

Great article, just what I wanted to find.

Also visit my blog: オークリー サングラス

Anonymous said...

Yes! Finally someone writes about コーチ.


my page ... コーチバッグ

Anonymous said...

Great article, just what I was looking for.

Also visit my web page; miu miu 財布

Anonymous said...

Great article. I will be experiencing many of these issues as well.
.

my homepage; トリーバーチ店舗

Anonymous said...

Very good article. I definitely love this website. Thanks!



Check out my weblog - トリーバーチ財布

Anonymous said...

Hello, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues.

When I look at your website in Chrome, it looks fine but
when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping.
I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, amazing blog!


Feel free to visit my web page; miu miu 財布

Anonymous said...

It's remarkable to visit this web page and reading the views of all mates concerning this post, while I am also eager of getting familiarity.

Also visit my blog post トリーバーチ財布

Anonymous said...

Thanks for one's marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you will be a great author.I will make certain to bookmark your blog and will come back from now on. I want to encourage you to ultimately continue your great job, have a nice evening!

Feel free to visit my website ... 財布トリーバーチ

Anonymous said...

I'm really loving the theme/design of your blog. Do you ever run into any web browser compatibility problems? A small number of my blog readers have complained about my website not working correctly in Explorer but looks great in Firefox. Do you have any advice to help fix this problem?

my website; モンスター イヤホン

Anonymous said...

Why users still make use of to read news papers when in this
technological world the whole thing is available on web?

my page :: ミュウミュウ店舗

Anonymous said...

Hi Dear, are you genuinely visiting this web page regularly, if so afterward you will absolutely get
nice know-how.

My web-site ... レイバンサングラス

Anonymous said...

Heya i'm for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It really useful & it helped me out much. I hope to give something back and aid others like you aided me.

Check out my weblog; トリーバーチ財布

Anonymous said...

Great post! We will be linking to this particularly great article on
our site. Keep up the great writing.

my webpage - monster beats

Anonymous said...

I don't even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was good. I do not know who you are but definitely you are going to a famous blogger if you are not already ;) Cheers!

My homepage - プラダバッグ

Anonymous said...

Hiya very nice web site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Amazing .
. I'll bookmark your site and take the feeds also? I am satisfied to find numerous useful info right here within the submit, we'd like develop extra strategies in this regard, thank you for sharing.
. . . . .

Feel free to surf to my webpage :: http://papiloscopistas.org/

Anonymous said...

I got this site from my friend who told me on the topic of this website and at the moment this time I am
browsing this web site and reading very informative articles here.


My site; レイバン

Anonymous said...

Great post.

Feel free to visit my blog post ... エアジョーダン

Anonymous said...

Wonderful, what a web site it is! This web site gives valuable information to us, keep it up.


My blog ... クロエ財布

Anonymous said...

Good day! I know this is kinda off topic but I'd figured I'd ask.
Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest writing a
blog post or vice-versa? My website discusses a
lot of the same topics as yours and I believe we could greatly
benefit from each other. If you might be interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail.
I look forward to hearing from you! Excellent blog by the way!



my web page :: オークリー サングラス

Anonymous said...

You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to be
actually something which I think I would never understand.

It seems too complex and extremely broad for me. I'm looking forward for your next post, I'll try to get the hang of it!


Feel free to visit my web page - gti-tdi.de

Anonymous said...

I have been surfing online more than three hours today, but I
never found any fascinating article like yours. It's pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all web owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the net can be a lot more helpful than ever before.

Take a look at my web page; ロレックスコピー

Anonymous said...

We are a bunch of volunteers and opening a brand new scheme in our community.
Your web site provided us with valuable information to
work on. You have performed an impressive job and
our whole group can be grateful to you.

Here is my web-site :: クロエ アウトレット

Anonymous said...

Good day! I could have sworn I've been to this web site before but after going through a few of the articles I realized it's new to me.
Nonetheless, I'm definitely delighted I discovered it and I'll be
book-marking it and checking back regularly!

my web site :: エアジョーダン

Anonymous said...

Hi friends, how is all, and what you want to say regarding this paragraph, in my view its actually awesome in support
of me.

Feel free to surf to my web blog ... angielski.krakow.pl

Anonymous said...

I don't even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was good. I don't know who you are but certainly you're going to a famous blogger if you aren't already ;)
Cheers!

Also visit my web site - ルブタン靴

Anonymous said...

Greetings I am so thrilled I found your website, I really found you by error, while I was looking
on Yahoo for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would just like
to say thanks for a remarkable post and a all round thrilling blog (I also love
the theme/design), I don't have time to read it all at the minute but I have bookmarked it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read much more, Please do keep up the excellent job.

my web-site クロエ アウトレット

Anonymous said...

Does your blog have a contact page? I'm having trouble locating it but, I'd like to shoot
you an email. I've got some ideas for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great blog and I look forward to seeing it improve over time.

my web-site :: オークリーメガネ

Anonymous said...

ブランドコピーhttp://www.brandshop9.com 専門店です。弊社にはブランドコピーバッグ、ブランドコピー時計、ブランドコピー財布、ブランドコピー服、ブランドコピーベルト等沢山のスパーブランドコピーが揃えっています。是非ご覧ください。
メール:brandshop8899@yahoo.co.jp
HOME: http://www.brandshop9.com
http://w.livedoor.jp/brandshop9/

Anonymous said...

Excellent enthusiastic synthetic eyesight just for detail and can foresee issues just before they take place.


Here is my website; 線上新聞, sportsblogg.se,

james said...

Hi
I read your post and i appreciate your efforts. The information that you share in the above article is very nice and useful .All the things that you share with people, are very nice. Thanks for this article.